PhD Position in Evaporation of Cryogenic Droplets

University of Twente


Job description

Currently we have a vacancy for a PhD on the topic of evaporation of cryogenic droplets. The position is in the Applied Thermal Sciences Lab at the University of Twente.

Brief project Summary: Machining processes need to adapt to increase productivity requiring higher speed of machining, leading to higher generated heat. Conventional coolants such as oils pose safety and health hazard in the factory and have limited cooling capacity. Cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice on the other hand are very attractive as they do not leave any residue (thus no post-process cleaning), are inert gases (no health hazard) and provide a higher-density of cooling. Laboratory tests at our industrial partner Air Liquide with liquid nitrogen and carbon dioxide snow threw up puzzling results; in spite of liquid nitrogen much colder than carbon dioxide snow, the heat absorbed from a heated surface was lower, secondly the capability to absorb heat from a surface flatten with increasing flow rate. The objective of the proposed work is to achieve a fundamental understanding of fluid mechanics and heat transfer of cryofluids interaction with a heated surface. The uniqueness of this work is that cryogenic fluids are often in a saturated state i.e. ready to change phase and form vapor, which is different from classical work in the literature with water or alcohols. A combination of experimental techniques including high-speed imaging and numerical models will be developed.  

Your profile

We are looking for a highly motivated PhD candidate with a background in fluid mechanics, heat transfer physics, applied physics, cryogenics or closely related areas. In particular, involvement in one or more of the following topics is desired:

  • Modeling or experiments of liquid-vapor phase change
  • Sound mathematical and analytical background
  • Expertise in FEM-based simulation
  • Thorough with basic concepts in fluid mechanics. For e.g. you should have mastered chapter 1-11 in Fluid Mechanics by Kundu et al. or similar.

English language proficiency is strictly required. Curiosity and strong scientific communication skills are desired. A scientific presentation will be part of the interview process.

You are very welcome to contact dr. S. Vanapalli for any questions you might have (

Our offer

  • We provide excellent mentorship and a stimulating, modern research environment with world-class research facilities;
  • You will have an employment contract for 4 years and can participate in all employee benefits the UT offers.
  • The gross monthly salary starts with € 2.395,- in the first year and increases to € 3.061,- in the fourth year of your employment;
  • holiday allowance of 8% of the gross annual salary and a year-end bonus of 8.3%;
  • A solid pension scheme;
  • Professional and personal development programs.

Applications should include the following documents:

  • a one-page motivation why you want to apply for this position and to join the group
  • a detailed CV (resume) with a publication list
  • an academic transcript of B.Sc. and M.Sc. education
  • details and contact of at least two academic referees
  • a high TOEFL (> 90 or 100) or IELTS (> 6.5 or 7) score, generally requested

The organization

The University of Twente. We stand for life sciences and technology. High tech and human touch. Education and research that matter. New technology which leads change, innovation and progress in society. The University of Twente is the only campus university of the Netherlands; divided over five faculties we provide more than fifty educational programmes. We have a strong focus on personal development and talented researchers are given scope for carrying out groundbreaking research.

We are an equal opportunity employer and value diversity at our company. We do not discriminate on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status or disability status. Because of our diversity values we do particularly support women to apply.

Within the TNW Faculty (Faculty of Science & Technology) of the University of Twente some 700 staff members and 2000 students are involved in training and research on the interface of chemical technology, applied physics and biomedical technology. Fields of application include sustainable energy, process technology and materials science, nanotechnology and technical medicine. Research, which enjoys a high profile both at home and internationally, has been accommodated in the multidisciplinary research institutes: Mesa+ Institute, TechMed Centra and Digital Society Institute. The faculty works together intensively with industrial partners and researchers in the Netherlands and abroad and conducts extensive research for external commissioning parties and funders.

In your application, please refer to


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